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The country's maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal is roughly equal to the size of its land area. Dhaka is its capital and largest city, followed by Chittagong , which has the country's largest port.
Bangladesh forms the largest and easternmost part of the Bengal region. Islam is the official religion of Bangladesh. Most of Bangladesh is covered by the Bengal Delta , the largest delta on Earth.
Highlands with evergreen forests are found in the northeastern and southeastern regions of the country.
Bangladesh has many islands and a coral reef. The longest unbroken sea beach of the world, Cox's Bazar Beach , is located in the southeast.
It is home to the Sundarbans , the largest mangrove forest in the world. The country's biodiversity includes a vast array of plant and wildlife, including endangered Bengal tigers , the national animal.
The Greeks and Romans identified the region as Gangaridai , a powerful kingdom of the historical Indian subcontinent , in the 3rd century BCE.
Archaeological research has unearthed several ancient cities in Bangladesh, which enjoyed international trade links for millennia.
The region was home to many principalities that made use of their inland naval prowess. As part of British India , the region was influenced by the Bengali renaissance and played an important role in anti-colonial movements.
A presidential government was in place between and , followed by a return to parliamentary democracy. The country continues to face challenges in the areas of poverty , education , healthcare and corruption.
Bangladesh is a middle power and a developing nation. Listed as one of the Next Eleven , its economy ranks 43rd in terms of nominal gross domestic product and 29th in terms of purchasing power parity.
It is one of the largest textile exporters in the world. With its strategically vital location between South , East and Southeast Asia, Bangladesh is an important promoter of regional connectivity and cooperation.
Bangladesh is one of the largest contributors to United Nations peacekeeping forces. Starting in the s, Bengali nationalists used the term in political rallies in East Pakistan.
The term Bangla is a major name for both the Bengal region and the Bengali language. The term Vangaladesa is found in 11th-century South Indian records.
The term gained official status during the Sultanate of Bengal in the 14th century. The Portuguese referred to the region as Bengala in the 16th century.
Stone Age tools found in Bangladesh indicate human habitation for over 20, years,  and remnants of Copper Age settlements date back 4, years.
By the 11th century people lived in systemically-aligned housing, buried their dead, and manufactured copper ornaments and black and red pottery.
The early Iron Age saw the development of metal weaponry, coinage , agriculture and irrigation. Greek and Roman records of the ancient Gangaridai Kingdom, which according to legend deterred the invasion of Alexander the Great , are linked to the fort city in Wari-Bateshwar.
These states had well-developed currencies, banking, shipping, architecture and art, and the ancient universities of Bikrampur and Mainamati hosted scholars and students from other parts of Asia.
Xuanzang of China was a noted scholar who resided at the Somapura Mahavihara the largest monastery in ancient India , and Atisa traveled from Bengal to Tibet to preach Buddhism.
The earliest form of the Bengali language began to the emerge during the eighth century. Early Muslim explorers and missionaries arrived in Bengal late in the first millennium CE.
The Islamic conquest of Bengal began with the invasion by Bakhtiar Khilji ; after annexing Bengal to the Delhi Sultanate , Khilji waged a military campaign in Tibet.
Bengal was ruled by the Delhi Sultanate for a century by governors from the Mamluk , Balban and Tughluq dynasties. During the 14th century, an independent Bengal Sultanate was established by rebel governors.
The sultanate's ruling houses included the Ilyas Shahi , Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah , Hussain Shahi , Suri and Karrani dynasties , and the era saw the introduction of a distinct mosque architecture  and the tangka currency.
The Arakan region was brought under Bengali hegemony. During the late 16th century, the Baro-Bhuyan a confederation of Muslim and Hindu aristocrats ruled eastern Bengal; its leader was the Mansad-e-Ala,  a title held by Isa Khan and his son Musa Khan.
The Khan dynasty are considered local heroes for resisting North Indian invasions with their river navies. The Mughal Empire controlled Bengal by the 17th century.
During the reign of Emperor Akbar , the Bengali agrarian calendar was reformed to facilitate tax collection. The Mughals established Dhaka as a fort city and commercial metropolis, and it was the capital of Mughal Bengal for 75 years.
Mughal Bengal attracted foreign traders for its muslin and silk goods, and the Armenians were a notable merchant community.
A Portuguese settlement in Chittagong flourished in the southeast, and a Dutch settlement in Rajshahi existed in the north. During the 18th century, the Nawabs of Bengal became the region's de facto rulers.
The Nawabs forged alliances with European colonial companies, which made the region relatively prosperous early in the century.
The Bengali Muslim population was a product of conversion and religious evolution,  and their pre-Islamic beliefs included elements of Buddhism and Hinduism.
The construction of mosques, Islamic academies madrasas and Sufi monasteries khanqahs facilitated conversion, and Islamic cosmology played a significant role in developing Bengali Muslim society.
Scholars have theorized that Bengalis were attracted to Islam by its egalitarian social order, which contrasted with the Hindu caste system.
Syncretic cults, such as the Baul movement, emerged on the fringes of Bengali Muslim society. The Persianate culture was significant in Bengal, where cities like Sonargaon became the easternmost centers of Persian influence.
The company formed the Presidency of Fort William , which administered the region until A notable aspect of company rule was the Permanent Settlement , which established the feudal zamindari system.
A number of famines, including the great Bengal famine of , occurred under company rule. Several rebellions broke out during the early 19th century including one led by Titumir , but British rule displaced the Muslim ruling class.
A conservative Islamic cleric, Haji Shariatullah , sought to overthrow the British by propagating Islamic revivalism. Several towns in Bangladesh participated in the Indian Mutiny and pledged allegiance to the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar , who was later exiled to neighboring Burma.
The challenge posed to company rule by the failed Indian Mutiny led to the creation of the British Indian Empire as a crown colony , and the first railway was built in During the late 19th century, novelists, social reformers and feminists emerged from Muslim Bengali society.
Electricity and municipal water systems were introduced in the s; cinemas opened in many towns during the early 20th century. East Bengal's plantation economy was important to the British Empire, particularly its jute and tea.
The British established tax-free river ports , such as the Port of Narayanganj , and large seaports like the Port of Chittagong.
Social tensions also increased under British rule, particularly between wealthy Hindus and the Muslim-majority population.
The Permanent Settlement made millions of Muslim peasants tenants of Hindu estates, and resentment of the Hindu landed gentry grew.
However, the first partition of Bengal created an uproar in Calcutta and the Indian National Congress. The British government reorganized the provinces in , reuniting East and West Bengal and making Assam a second province.
The Raj was slow to allow self-rule in the colonial subcontinent. It established the Bengal Legislative Council in , and the council's native Bengali representation increased during the early 20th century.
The Bengal Provincial Muslim League was formed in to advocate civil rights for Bengali Muslims within a constitutional framework.
During the s, the league was divided into factions supporting the Khilafat movement and favoring cooperation with the British to achieve self-rule.
Segments of the Bengali elite supported Mustafa Kemal Ataturk secularist forces. After the Morley-Minto Reforms and the diarchy era in the legislatures of British India , the British government promised limited provincial autonomy in Although it won a majority of seats in , the Bengal Congress boycotted the legislature.
In Huq supported the Lahore Resolution , which envisaged independent states in the northwestern and eastern Muslim-majority regions of the subcontinent.
The first Huq ministry, a coalition with the Bengal Provincial Muslim League, lasted until ; it was followed by a Huq coalition with the Hindu Mahasabha which lasted until Huq was succeeded by Khawaja Nazimuddin , who grappled with the effects of the Burma Campaign , the Bengal famine of and the Quit India movement.
In , the Bengal Provincial Muslim League won the provincial election, taking of the seat assembly the largest Muslim League mandate in British India.
Suhrawardy , who made a final futile effort for a United Bengal in , was the last premier of Bengal. At the preliminary joint meeting, it was decided votes to 90 that if the province remained united it should join the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan.
At a separate meeting of legislators from West Bengal , it was decided 58 votes to 21 that the province should be partitioned and West Bengal should join the Constituent Assembly of India.
At another meeting of legislators from East Bengal , it was decided votes to 35 that the province should not be partitioned and votes to 34 that East Bengal should join the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan if Bengal was partitioned.
Cyril Radcliffe was tasked with drawing the borders of Pakistan and India, and the Radcliffe Line established the borders of present-day Bangladesh.
The Dominion of Pakistan was created on 14 August East Bengal, with Dhaka its capital, was the most populous province of the Pakistani federation led by Governor General Muhammad Ali Jinnah , who promised freedom of religion and secular democracy in the new state.
Partition gave increased economic opportunity to East Bengalis, producing an urban population during the s. The United Front coalition swept aside the Muslim League in a landslide victory in the East Bengali legislative election.
Pakistan adopted its first constitution in Three Bengalis were its Prime Minister until Nazimuddin, Mohammad Ali of Bogra and Suhrawardy. None of the three completed their terms, and resigned from office.
The Pakistan Army imposed military rule in , and Ayub Khan was the country's strongman for 11 years. Political repression increased after the coup.
Khan introduced a new constitution in , replacing Pakistan's parliamentary system with a presidential and gubernatorial system based on electoral college selection known as Basic Democracy.
In Dhaka became the seat of the National Assembly of Pakistan , a move seen as appeasing increased Bengali nationalism.
According to senior World Bank officials, Pakistan practiced extensive economic discrimination against East Pakistan: General Yahya Khan assumed power, reintroducing martial law.
Ethnic and linguistic discrimination was common in Pakistan's civil and military services, in which Bengalis were under-represented. Fifteen percent of Pakistani central-government offices were occupied by East Pakistanis, who formed 10 percent of the military.
The League claimed the right to form a government and develop a new constitution, but was strongly opposed by the Pakistani military and the Pakistan Peoples Party led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
The Bengali population was angered when Prime Minister-elect Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was prevented from taking the office. This time the struggle is for our independence.
The Pakistan Army continued to massacre Bengali students , intellectuals , politicians, civil servants and military defectors in the Bangladesh genocide , while the Mukti Bahini and other Bengali guerilla forces created strong resistance throughout the country.
The first major benefit concert in history, it was organized by Harrison and Indian Bengali sitarist Ravi Shankar. The Provisional Government of Bangladesh was established on 17 April , converting the elected members of the Pakistani national assembly and East Pakistani provincial assembly into the Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh.
The provisional government issued the Proclamation of the Independence of Bangladeshi , which was the country's interim constitution and declared "equality, human dignity and social justice" as its fundamental principles.
The military wing of the provisional government was the Bangladesh Forces that included Mukti Bahini and other Bengali guerilla forces.
Led by General M. Osmani and eleven sector commanders , the forces strongly held the countryside during the war and conducted wide-ranging guerrilla operations against Pakistani forces.
As a result, almost entire country except capital Dacca was liberated by Bangladesh Forces by late November. This led Pakistan Army to attack neighboring India's western front on 2 December.
India retaliated both in western and eastern fronts. By joint Bangladeshi ground advance and Indian air strike, the rest capital Dacca was liberated from Pakistani occupation in mid December.
The nine-months long war ended with the surrender of Pakistani armed forces to the Bangladesh-India Allied Forces on 16 December The cause of Bangladeshi self-determination was recognized around the world.
By August , the new state was recognized by 86 countries. The constituent assembly adopted Bangladesh's constitution on 4 November , establishing a secular, multiparty parliamentary democracy.
The new constitution included references to socialism , and Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman nationalized major industries in The Awami League won the country's first general election in , securing a large majority in the Jatiyo Sangshad.
Amid growing agitation by the opposition National Awami Party and National Socialist Party , he became increasingly authoritarian.
Rahman amended the constitution, giving himself more emergency powers including the suspension of fundamental rights. The Bangladesh famine of also worsened the political situation.
Rahman banned all newspapers except four state-owned publications, and amended the constitution to increase his power. He was assassinated during a coup on 15 August Martial law was declared, and the presidency passed to the usurper Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad for four months.
Ahmad is widely regarded as a quisling by Bangladeshis. Bangladesh was governed by a military junta led by the Chief Martial Law Administrator for three years.
In , Army chief Ziaur Rahman became president. Rahman reinstated multiparty politics, privatized industries and newspapers, established BEPZA and held the country's second general election in Rahman was assassinated in , and was succeeded by Vice President Abdus Sattar.
Ahsanuddin Chowdhury was installed as president, but army chief Hussain Muhammad Ershad became the country's de facto leader and assumed the presidency in Ershad lifted martial law in General elections were held in and , although the latter was boycotted by the opposition BNP and Awami League.
Ershad pursued administrative decentralization, dividing the country into 64 districts, and pushed Parliament to make Islam the state religion in After the general election, the twelfth amendment to the constitution restored the parliamentary republic and Begum Khaleda Zia became Bangladesh's first female prime minister.
Zia, a former first lady, led a BNP government from to In her finance minister, Saifur Rahman , began a major program to liberalize the Bangladeshi economy.
After an Awami League initiative, the BNP introduced a system of caretaker governments to oversee the transfer of power.
The Awami League, led by Sheikh Hasina , won the seventh general election. The second Zia ministry saw improved economic growth, but political turmoil gripped the country between and A radical Islamist militant group, the JMB , carried out a series of bombings.
Amid widespread political unrest the Bangladeshi military urged President Iajuddin Ahmed to impose a state of emergency and a caretaker government, led by technocrat Fakhruddin Ahmed , was installed.
Emergency rule lasted for two years, until the ninth general election in which returned Sheikh Hasina and the Awami League to power.
In , the Supreme Court ruled martial law illegal and affirmed secular principles in the constitution. The following year, the Awami League abolished the caretaker-government system.
The geography of Bangladesh is divided between three regions. Most of the country is dominated by the fertile Ganges-Brahmaputra delta ; the northwest and central parts of the country are formed by the Madhupur and the Barind plateaus.
The northeast and southeast are home to evergreen hill ranges. The Ganges unites with the Jamuna main channel of the Brahmaputra and later joins the Meghna, finally flowing into the Bay of Bengal.
Bangladesh has 57 trans-boundary rivers , making the resolution of water issues politically complicated, in most cases, as the country is a lower riparian state to India.
Bangladesh is predominantly rich fertile flat land. The country's haor wetlands are of significance to global environmental science. In southeastern Bangladesh, experiments have been done since the s to 'build with nature'.
Construction of cross dams has induced a natural accretion of silt, creating new land. With Dutch funding, the Bangladeshi government began promoting the development of this new land in the late s.
The effort has become a multi-agency endeavor, building roads, culverts, embankments, cyclone shelters, toilets and ponds, as well as distributing land to settlers.
Bangladesh is divided into eight administrative divisions,    each named after their respective divisional headquarters: Divisions are subdivided into districts zila.
There are 64 districts in Bangladesh, each further subdivided into upazila subdistricts or thana. The area within each police station, except for those in metropolitan areas, is divided into several unions , with each union consisting of multiple villages.
In the metropolitan areas, police stations are divided into wards, which are further divided into mahallas. There are no elected officials at the divisional or district levels, and the administration is composed only of government officials.
Direct elections are held in each union or ward for a chairperson and a number of members. In , a parliamentary act was passed to reserve three seats out of 12 in every union for female candidates.
Straddling the Tropic of Cancer , Bangladesh's climate is tropical with a mild winter from October to March, and a hot, humid summer from March to June.
Natural calamities, such as floods , tropical cyclones , tornadoes , and tidal bores occur almost every year,  combined with the effects of deforestation , soil degradation and erosion.
The cyclones of and were particularly devastating, the latter killing some , people. In September , Bangladesh saw the most severe flooding in modern world history.
Effectively, two-thirds of the country was underwater. The severity of the flooding was attributed to unusually high monsoon rains, the shedding off of equally unusually large amounts of melt water from the Himalayas , and the widespread cutting down of trees that would have intercepted rain water for firewood or animal husbandry.
Bangladesh is now widely recognised to be one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change. Natural hazards that come from increased rainfall, rising sea levels, and tropical cyclones are expected to increase as climate changes, each seriously affecting agriculture, water and food security, human health and shelter.
There is evidence that earthquakes pose a threat to the country and that plate tectonics have caused rivers to shift course suddenly and dramatically.
Bangladeshi water is frequently contaminated with arsenic because of the high arsenic content of the soil—up to 77 million people are exposed to toxic arsenic from drinking water.
Bangladesh is located in the Indomalaya ecozone. Its ecology includes a long sea coastline, numerous rivers and tributaries , lakes, wetlands , evergreen forests, semi evergreen forests, hill forests, moist deciduous forests , freshwater swamp forests and flat land with tall grass.
The Bangladesh Plain is famous for its fertile alluvial soil which supports extensive cultivation. The country is dominated by lush vegetation, with villages often buried in groves of mango , jackfruit , bamboo , betel nut , coconut and date palm.
Water lilies and lotuses grow vividly during the monsoon season. The country has 50 wildlife sanctuaries. It is divided into three protected sanctuaries—the South , East and West zones.
The northeastern Sylhet region is home to haor wetlands, which is a unique ecosystem. It also includes tropical and subtropical coniferous forests , a freshwater swamp forest and mixed deciduous forests.
The southeastern Chittagong region covers evergreen and semi evergreen hilly jungles. Central Bangladesh includes the plainland Sal forest running along the districts of Gazipur, Tangail and Mymensingh.
Martin's Island is the only coral reef in the country. Bangladesh has an abundance of wildlife in its forests, marshes, woodlands and hills. The Chital deer are widely seen in southwestern woodlands.
Other animals include the black giant squirrel , capped langur , Bengal fox , sambar deer , jungle cat , king cobra , wild boar , mongooses , pangolins , pythons and water monitors.
Bangladesh has one of the largest population of Irrawaddy dolphins and Ganges dolphins. A census found 6, Irrawaddy dolphins inhabiting the littoral rivers of Bangladesh.
It also has species of birds. Several animals became extinct in Bangladesh during the last century, including the one horned and two horned rhinoceros and common peafowl.
The human population is concentrated in urban areas, hence limiting deforestation to a certain extent. Rapid urban growth has threatened natural habitats.
Although many areas are protected under law, a large portion of Bangladeshi wildlife is threatened by this growth. The Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act was enacted in The government has designated several regions as Ecologically Critical Areas , including wetlands, forests and rivers.
The Sundarbans Tiger Project and the Bangladesh Bear Project are among the key initiatives to strengthen conservation. The Constitution of Bangladesh established a unitary , Westminster -style parliamentary republic with universal suffrage.
A member of parliament supported by a parliamentary majority usually the chair of the largest party is the Prime Minister , the head of government and of the cabinet.
Bangladesh is governed by a member parliament, known as the Jatiyo Sangshad. Three hundred of its members are elected on a first past the post basis, and 50 seats are reserved for female nominees by political parties.
Although parliamentary elections are scheduled every five years, they have often been delayed by political crises, emergency rule or martial law.
The President of Bangladesh is the head of state. From to the presidency had executive powers, but it has been reduced to a largely-ceremonial role by the Twelfth Amendment to the constitution.
In , the Fifteenth Amendment mandated the "highest punishment" for usurpers. The Jatiyo Sangshad is restrained from holding no-confidence motions, floor crossing and free votes by Article 70 of the constitution.
Human-rights violations have increased due to the growing power of security forces—particularly the Rapid Action Battalion , which is accused of arbitrary arrests, summary executions and forced disappearances.
Bangladesh's legal system is based on common law , and its principal source of laws are acts of Parliament.
From to , laws were enacted by Pakistan's national assembly and the East Pakistani legislature. The Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh was the country's provisional parliament until , when the first elected Jatiyo Sangshad was sworn in.
Although most of Bangladesh's laws were compiled in English , after a government directive laws are now primarily written in Bengali.
Marriage, divorce and inheritance are governed by Islamic , Hindu and Christian family law. The judiciary is often influenced by legal developments in the Commonwealth of Nations , such as the doctrine of legitimate expectation.
The courts have wide latitude in judicial review , and judicial precedent is supported by the Article of the constitution. The judiciary includes district and metropolitan courts, which are divided into civil and criminal courts.
Due to a shortage of judges, the judiciary has a large backlog. The Bangladesh Judicial Service Commission is an independent body responsible for judicial appointments, salaries and discipline.
In the army strength was around ,, including reservists,  the Air Force 22, and the Navy 24, For many years, Bangladesh has been the world's largest contributor to UN peacekeeping forces.
The Bangladesh Navy has the third-largest fleet after India and Thailand of countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal , including guided-missile frigates , submarines , cutters and aircraft.
The Bangladesh Air Force is equipped with several Russian multi-role fighter jets. Ties between the Bangladeshi and the Indian military have increased, with high-level visits by the military chiefs of both countries.
The first major intergovernmental organization joined by Bangladesh was the Commonwealth of Nations in Bangladesh relies on multilateral diplomacy in the World Trade Organization.
In addition to membership in the Commonwealth and the United Nations, Bangladesh pioneered regional cooperation in South Asia. Bangladesh is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SAARC , an organization designed to strengthen relations and promote economic and cultural growth among its members.
It has hosted several summits, and two Bangladeshi diplomats were the organization's secretary-general. It has hosted the summit of OIC foreign ministers, which addresses issues, conflicts and disputes affecting Muslim-majority countries.
Bangladesh is a founding member of the Developing 8 Countries , a bloc of eight Muslim-majority republics.
Japan is Bangladesh's largest economic-aid provider, and the countries have common political goals. The United States is a major economic and security partner , including its largest export market and foreign investor.
Seventy-six percent of Bangladeshis viewed the United States favorably in , one of the highest ratings among Asian countries. Relations with other countries are generally positive.
Shared democratic values ease relations with Western countries, and similar economic concerns forge ties to other developing countries.
Despite poor working conditions and war affecting overseas Bangladeshi workers , relations with Middle Eastern countries are friendly and bounded by religion and culture; more than a million Bangladeshis are employed in the region.
In , the king of Saudi Arabia called Bangladesh "one of the most important Muslim countries". Bangladesh's most politically-important bilateral relationship is with neighboring India.
In , major Indian newspapers called Bangladesh a "trusted friend". The countries are forging regional economic and infrastructure projects, such as a regional motor-vehicle agreement in eastern South Asia and a coastal shipping agreement in the Bay of Bengal.
Indo-Bangladesh relations have a shared cultural heritage and democratic values and a history of support for Bangladeshi independence. Despite political goodwill, border killings of Bangladeshi civilians and the lack of a comprehensive water-sharing agreement for 54 trans-boundary rivers are major issues.
In , India joined Russia and China in refusing to condemn Myanmar's atrocities against the Rohingya , which contradicted with Bangladesh's demand for recognizing Rohingya human rights.
The Bangladeshi beef and leather industries have seen increased prices due to the Indian BJP government's Hindu nationalist campaign against the export of beef and cattle skin.
Sino-Bangladesh relations date to the s and are relatively warm, despite the Chinese leadership siding with Pakistan during Bangladesh's war of independence.
China and Bangladesh established bilateral relations in which have significantly strengthened, and the country is considered a cost-effective source of arms for the Bangladeshi military.
The neighbouring country of Myanmar was one of first countries to recognize Bangladesh. In , the countries came to terms at the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea over maritime disputes in the Bay of Bengal.
The parliament, government and civil society of Bangladesh have been at the forefront of international criticism against Myanmar for military operations against the Rohingya, which the United Nations has described as ethnic cleansing.
Although Bangladeshi and Pakistani businesses have invested in each other, diplomatic relations are strained because of Pakistani denial of the Bangladesh genocide.
Bangladeshi aid agencies work in many developing countries. Bangladeshi foreign policy is influenced by the principle of "friendship to all and malice to none", first articulated by Bengali statesman H.
Rights in Bangladesh are enshrined in the country's constitution. However, government and security forces have flouted constitutional principles and have been accused of human rights abuses.
Bangladesh is ranked "partly free" in Freedom House 's Freedom in the World report,  but its press is ranked "not free".
The United Nations is concerned about government "measures that restrict freedom of expression and democratic space". Bangladeshi security forces, particularly the Rapid Action Battalion RAB , have received international condemnation for human-rights abuses including enforced disappearances , torture and extrajudicial killings.
Over 1, people have been said to have been victims of extrajudicial killings by RAB since its inception under the last Bangladesh Nationalist Party government.
Secularism is protected by the constitution of Bangladesh , and religious parties are barred from contesting elections; however, the government is accused of courting religious extremist groups.
Islam's ambiguous position as the de facto state religion has been criticized by the United Nations. The Hindu and Buddhist communities have experienced religious violence from Islamic groups, notably the Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami and its student wing Shibir.
Islamic far-right candidates peaked at 12 percent of the vote in , falling to four percent in According to the Global Slavery Index, an estimated 1,, people are enslaved in modern-day Bangladesh, or 0.
After it assumed power in , the Awami League government reduced the commission's independent power to investigate and prosecute. Bangladesh, a developing country with a market-based mixed economy , is one of the Next Eleven emerging markets.
During its first five years of independence Bangladesh adopted socialist policies, an Awami League blunder. In , finance minister Saifur Rahman introduced a programme of economic liberalization.
The Bangladeshi private sector has rapidly expanded, with a number of conglomerates driving the economy. Major industries include textiles, pharmaceuticals , shipbuilding, steel, electronics, energy, construction materials, chemicals, ceramics, food processing and leather goods.
Export-oriented industrialization has increased, with fiscal year —15 exports increasing by 3. However, an insufficient power supply is a significant obstacle to Bangladesh's economic development.
According to the World Bank , poor governance, corruption and weak public institutions are also major challenges. Agriculture is the largest sector of the economy, making up More Bangladeshis earn their living from agriculture than from any other sector.
The country is among the top producers of rice fourth , potatoes seventh , tropical fruits sixth , jute second , and farmed fish fifth.
Major gas fields are located in the northeastern particularly Sylhet and southern including Barisal and Chittagong regions. PetroBangla is the national energy company.
The American multinational corporation Chevron produces 50 percent of Bangladesh's natural gas. Jute exports remain significant, although the global jute trade has shrunk considerably since its World War II peak.
Bangladesh has one of the world's oldest tea industries, and is a major exporter of fish and seafood. The pharmaceutical industry meets 97 percent of domestic demand, and exports to many countries.
Steel is concentrated in the port city of Chittagong, and the ceramics industry is prominent in international trade. In Bangladesh was the world's 20th-largest cement producer, an industry dependent on limestone imports from northeast India.
Food processing is a major sector, with local brands such as PRAN increasing their international market share. The electronics industry is growing rapidly, particularly the Walton Group.
The service sector accounts for 51 percent of the country's GDP. Bangladesh ranks with Pakistan as South Asia's second-largest banking sector.
Bangladesh's telecommunications industry is one of the world's fastest-growing, with million cellphone subscribers in December ,  and Grameenphone , Banglalink , Robi and BTTB are major companies.
Tourism is developing, with the beach resort of Cox's Bazar the center of the industry. The Sylhet region, home to Bangladesh's tea country, also hosts a large number of visitors.
Microfinance was pioneered in Bangladesh by Muhammad Yunus. Transport is a major sector of the economy. Aviation has grown rapidly, and includes the flag carrier Biman Bangladesh Airlines and other privately owned airlines.
Bangladesh has a number of airports: The busiest, Shahjalal International Airport connects Dhaka with major destinations. Bangladesh has a 2,kilometre 1,mile rail network operated by state-owned Bangladesh Railway.
The total length of the country's road and highway network is nearly 21,kilometre 13,mile. It has one of the largest inland waterway networks in the world,  with 8, kilometres 5, miles of navigable waters.
Bangladesh has three seaports and 22 river ports. Bangladesh had an installed electrical capacity of 10, MW in January Bangladesh has planned to import hydropower from Bhutan and Nepal.
An estimated 98 percent of the country's population had access to improved water sources in  a high percentage for a low-income country , achieved largely through the construction of hand pumps with support from external donors.
However, in it was discovered that much of Bangladesh's groundwater the source of drinking water for 97 percent of the rural population and a significant share of the urban population is naturally contaminated with arsenic.
Another challenge is low cost recovery due to low tariffs and poor economic efficiency , especially in urban areas where water revenue does not cover operating costs.
An estimated 56 percent of the population had access to adequate sanitation facilities in Bangladesh' s tourist attractions include historical and monuments, resorts, beaches, picnic spots, forests and tribal people, wildlife of various species.
Activities for tourists include angling , water skiing , river cruising, hiking, rowing , yachting , and sea bathing.
Estimates of the Bangladeshi population vary, but UN data suggests ,, million. Bangladesh is the world's eighth-most-populous nation.
In , its population was 44 million. With the promotion of birth control in the s, Bangladesh's growth rate began to slow. Its total fertility rate is now 2.
The population is relatively young, with 34 percent aged 15 or younger and five percent 65 or older. Life expectancy at birth was estimated at 70 years in Bengalis are 98 percent of the population.
The Chittagong Hill Tracts region experienced unrest and an insurgency from to in an autonomy movement by its indigenous people.
Although a peace accord was signed in , the region remains militarized. Bangladesh is home to a significant Ismaili community. Stranded Pakistanis were given citizenship by the Supreme Court in An estimated over , Rohingya refugees from Myanmar live in refugee camps in Cox's Bazar District in the southeast.
Dhaka is Bangladesh's capital and largest city. There are 12 city corporations which hold mayoral elections: Mayors are elected for five-year terms.
Altogether there are urban centres in Bangladesh among which 43 cities have a population of more than More than 98 percent of people in Bangladesh speak Bengali, sometimes called Bangla, as their native language.
Pakistani Biharis , stranded since and living in Bangladeshi camps, speak Urdu. Bengali is the official language. Although laws were historically written in English, they were not translated into Bengali until Bangladesh's constitution and laws now exist in English and Bengali.
Islam is the largest and the official state religion of Bangladesh,   followed by About four percent are non-denominational Muslims.
The Ijtema is the second-largest Muslim congregation in the world, after the Hajj. Hinduism is followed by Bangladeshi Hindus are the country's second-largest religious group and the third-largest Hindu community in the world, after those in India and Nepal.
Despite their dwindling numbers, Hindus are the second-largest religious community after the Muslims in Dhaka. Buddhism is the third-largest religion, at 0.
Bangladeshi Buddhists are concentrated among ethnic groups in the Chittagong Hill Tracts particularly the Chakma, Marma and Tanchangya peoples , and coastal Chittagong is home to a large number of Bengali Buddhists.
Christianity is the fourth-largest religion, at 0. The Constitution of Bangladesh declares Islam the state religion, but bans religion-based politics.
It proclaims equal recognition of Hindus, Buddhists, Christians and people of all faiths. Bangladesh has a low literacy rate , which was estimated at In the tertiary-education sector, the Bangladeshi government funds over 15 state universities through the University Grants Commission.
The education system is divided into five levels: Students who pass the PEC examination proceed to four years of secondary or matriculation training, culminating in the SSC examination.
Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of secondary education, culminating in the SSC examination. Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of higher-secondary education, culminating in the Higher Secondary School Certificate HSC examination.
Education is primarily in Bengali, but English is commonly taught and used. Many Muslim families send their children to part-time courses or full-time religious education in Bengali and Arabic in madrasas.
Article 17 of the Bangladesh Constitution provides that all children between the ages of six and ten years receive a basic education free of charge.
Universities in Bangladesh are of three general types: Bangladesh has 34 public, 64 private and two international universities ; Bangladesh National University has the largest enrollment, and the University of Dhaka established in is the oldest.
Asian University for Women in Chittagong is the preeminent South Asian liberal-arts university for women, representing 14 Asian countries; its faculty hails from notable academic institutions in North America, Europe, Asia, Australia and the Middle East.
The NITER is a specialized public-private partnership institute which provides higher education in textile engineering.
Medical education is provided by 29 government and private medical colleges. All medical colleges are affiliated with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
Bangladesh's literacy rate rose to 71 percent due to education modernization and improved funding, with 16, schools and 2, colleges receiving Monthly Pay Order MPO facilities.
According to education minister Nurul Islam Nahid , 27, madrasas and technical and vocational institutions were enlisted for the facility.
Health and education levels remain relatively low, although they have improved as poverty levels have decreased.
In rural areas, village doctors with little or no formal training constitute 62 percent of healthcare providers practising "modern medicine"; formally-trained providers make up four percent of the total health workforce.
A Future Health Systems survey indicated significant deficiencies in the treatment practices of village doctors, with widespread harmful and inappropriate drug prescribing.
A study of 1, households in rural Bangladesh found that direct payments to formal and informal healthcare providers and indirect costs loss of earnings because of illness associated with illness were deterrents to accessing healthcare from qualified providers.
Bangladesh's poor health conditions are attributed to the lack of healthcare provision by the government. According to a World Bank report, healthcare spending was 3.
Malnutrition has been a persistent problem in Bangladesh, with the World Bank ranking the country first in the number of malnourished children worldwide.
The recorded history of art in Bangladesh can be traced to the 3rd century BCE, when terracotta sculptures were made in the region. In classical antiquity, a notable school of sculptural Hindu, Jain and Buddhist art developed in the Pala Empire and the Sena dynasty.
Islamic art evolved since the 14th century. The architecture of the Bengal Sultanate saw a distinct style of domed mosques with complex niche pillars that had no minarets.
Mughal Bengal 's most celebrated artistic tradition was the weaving of Jamdani motifs on fine muslin, which is now classified by UNESCO as an intangible cultural heritage.
Jamdani motifs were similar to Iranian textile art buta motifs and Western textile art paisley. The Jamdani weavers in Dhaka received imperial patronage.
Pottery is widely used in Bengali culture. The modern art movement in Bangladesh took shape during the s, particularly with the pioneering works of Zainul Abedin.
East Bengal developed its own modernist painting and sculpture traditions, which were distinct from the art movements in West Bengal.
The Art Institute Dhaka has been an important center for visual art in the region. Novera Ahmed and Nitun Kundu were the country's pioneers of modernist sculpture.
The Chobi Mela is the largest photography festival in Asia. Bengali developed from Sanskrit and Magadhi Prakrit in the 11th century.
Bengali literature is a millennium-old tradition; the Charyapada are the earliest examples of Bengali poetry. Sufi spiritualism inspired many Bengali Muslim writers.
Syed Alaol was a noted secular poet and translator. The Chandidas are an example of the Bangladeshi folk literature that developed during the Middle Ages.
Fourth wicket for Ravindra Jadeja! Mosaddek Hossain becomes his latest victim and Bangladesh are for the loss of seven wickets.
Mahmudullah departs for 25 as Bhuvneshwar Kumar provides the breakthrough for India. It was really unfortunate as the batsman got a huge edge on the ball but the umpire gave him LBW and now, Bangladesh are for the loss of six wickets.
Back to back boundaries for Mahmudullah off the bowling of Kuldeep Yadav and that will be a boost to the run rate.
It was also their first boundary in 60 balls as their last four came in The partnership between Mosaddek Hossain and Mahmudullah has been slow but quite steady.
The batsmen have added 25 runs off 72 balls and the Indian bowlers will looking for a breakthrough right now. After a consistent spin attack, India have reintroduced Jasprit Bumrah into the attack.
Earlier, he got the better of opener Nazmul Hossain and India will hope that he will be able to provide them with the important breakthrough. Bangladesh were going at the rate of 4.
This shows how much India have controlled the game and it is all thanks to Ravindra Jadeja. Mahmudullah misread the delivery from Yuzvendra Chahal and ended up giving a catch back to the bowler.
However, it was not an easy chance and although Chahal tried his best, he ended up dropping it. This is a far from ideal position for Bangladesh but Mahmudullah is not going to defend.
The batsmen went after Yuzvendra Chahal and slammed him for a boundary through mid-wicket. This was the 1st 3-wicket haul for Ravindra Jadeja in the last 30 innings.
His last three-wicket haul came against West Indies at Delhi in Third wicket for Ravindra Jadeja! It seemed like India have taken the fifth wicket, but the third umpire disagrees.
Ravindra Jadeja strikes once again for India as Bangladesh lose their fourth wicket. Bangladesh 60 for the loss of four wickets. Mohammad Mithun plas a high risk reverse sweep to get a boundary away off the bowling of Ravindra Jadeja.
It is a welcome hit for the Bangladeshis who have been crawling so far. The run-rate is still under 4. Two men who could be fighting with each other for a World Cup spot are bowling from either end.
Mithun and Mushfiqur are milking it currently. It is a suicidal shot that leads to the downfall of Shakib Al Hasan. He had just hit Ravindra Jadeja for two back to back boundaries.
He attacked the spinner again and ended up giving an easy catch to Dhawan at backward square leg. Absolutely unnecessary shot from the experienced player.
Ravindra Jadeja bowled a no ball and the following free hit was declared a dead ball by the umpire. There is controversy as Rohit Sharma protests.
The decision stands and Shakib Al Hasan hits him for two consecutive boundaries. Ravindra Jadeja gets a go from the other end. India have only two seam bowlers in the team today and that is where Bangladesh could benefit as their batsmen play spinners well.
Yuzvendra Chahal has been brought into the attack and he almost picks up a wicket with his second delivery.
The leggie has the ability to trap batsmen with his guile and India would hope he can break this partnership even before it takes shape.
Shakib Al Hasan and Mushfiqur Rahim are the heartbeat of this Bangladesh team and these two batsmen will have to repair the early damage caused by the Indian pacers.
Shakib is away with a boundary already while Mushfiqur has been cautious. Both men have the ability to play the long innings and will have to do that for their team.
It is an early walk back to the pavillion for Nazmul Hossain. Jasprit Bumrah bowled that with an angle outside the off stump and the left hander threw his bat at it it and got an edge, which was taken safely by Shikhar Dhawan in the slips.
The ball went very fast to Dhawan who juggled it once before plucking it. It is that man again for India. Bhuvneshwar Kumar bowls a perfect bouncer to Liton Das who pulls without control and gets a top edge.
It is a brilliant running catch in the deep by Kedar Jadhav. Bangladesh have lost an early wicket. Jasprit Bumrah is guilty of pitching it way too short and Liton Das has pulled that to teh square leg fence as Bangladesh are finally up and running.
Bumrah needs to keep it tight from his end too as Bhuvneshwar is keeping his end of the bargain. Bhuvneshwar Kumar is not giving anything away to the Bangladeshi openers.
His immaculate discipline in both line and length is making things difficult for the opposition. Bumrah too has looked sharp in the one over he has bowled so far.
The first over from Bhuvneshwar Kumar yields four runs. Bhuvneshwar Kumar is on the money from the first ball.
Bowls it outside the off stump and gets it to bounce awkwardly. Liton Das is lucky to get it away for a single. While Bumrah has picked up 43 wickets in these matches at an average of Their economy rates of 4.
The likes of Mushfiqur Rahim and Mahmudullah can be really dangerous in a chase and that is why India has decided to bowl first. The Indian batsmen have looked in good touch, while the bowlers roared back to form against Pakistan.
It is a fresh pitch. There is hardly any grass. It looks an even wicket. It is not a pitch where you can blast. You have to accumulate runs on this pitch.